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Happy Birthday, Frederick Law Olmsted
In April, we remember Biltmore’s landscape designer Frederick Law Olmsted, born April 26, 1822. Often referred to as the “Father of Landscape Architecture in America,” he’s best known today as the designer of Central Park in New York City.
Prior to becoming a landscape architect, Olmsted was first a seaman, farmer, then a journalist and founder of The Nation magazine, which still exists today.
During the Civil War, he served as Executive Secretary of the U.S. Sanitary Commission (a precursor to the Red Cross). Central Park, which he co-designed with Calvert Vaux, was his first landscape design although ultimately his firm completed more than 500 projects.
Olmsted knew William Henry Vanderbilt, George Vanderbilt’s father, when they both lived on Staten Island, and the designer had already worked on several Vanderbilt family projects when George Vanderbilt approached him in 1888 to advise on 2,000 acres of North Carolina property he’d already purchased.
“Now I have brought you here to examine it and tell me if I have been doing anything very foolish,” he reportedly told Olmsted.
Olmsted gave a frank assessment. He advised Vanderbilt: “The soil seems to be generally poor. The woods are miserable, all the good trees having again and again been culled out and only the runts left. The topography is most unsuitable for anything that can properly be called park scenery. My advice would be to make a small park in which you look from your house, make a small pleasure ground and gardens; farm your river bottoms chiefly and . . .keep and fatten livestock with a view to manure and . . .make the rest a forest.”
Plans for both the house and landscape changed in 1889 when Vanderbilt and architect Richard Morris Hunt toured France together and the scale of Biltmore House expanded.
Olmsted wrote that he was nervous, not sure how to “merge stately architectural work with natural or naturalistic landscape work.” But the architect and landscape designer worked together “without a note of discord,” and Olmsted biographer Witold Rybczynki says that the landscape architect achieved something completely original at Biltmore: the first combination of French and English landscape designs.
Transitions between formal and natural gardens were important, as was the use of native plants, small trees and large shrubs, and color and texture year-round.
Biltmore would prove to be Olmsted’s last design. As he approached the end of his work on the estate, he said “It is a great work of peace we are engaged in and one of these days we will all be proud of our parts in it.” He said Biltmore was “the most permanently important public work” of his career. More than 120 years after his work, we continue to benefit from his vision.
Top: The Approach Road, which Olmsted designed to achieve a “sensation passing through the remote depths of a deep forest,” only to have “the view of the Residence, with its orderly dependencies, to break suddenly, fully upon one.”
Right: Portrait of Frederick Law Olmsted by John Singer Sargent; which hangs in the Second Floor Living Hall of Biltmore House.
Bottom: Workers constructing the Approach Road.Return to Blog