The presence of natural fruit acids that give wine a tart, crisp, or sour taste.
The process of holding wine in barrels, tanks, or bottles to affect its character.
The geographic origin of a wine or the specific area where its grapes were grown.
The scents of a wine that originate from the grape.
Bitter; causing a drying sensation in the mouth that results from strong tannins or high acidity.
The relationship between a wine’s alcohol, acid, fruit, residual sugar, and tannins. A wine is considered well balanced when all of these components live in harmony.
A wooden container (typically oak) used for fermenting or aging wines.
The maturing of wines in oak barrels to achieve deeper color, softer texture, or sweeter taste.
Blanc de Blancs
Literally, “white from whites”; sparkling wine made from 100% white grapes (e.g., Chardonnay).
Blanc de Noirs
Literally, “white from blacks”; sparkling wine made from 100% “black” (red) grapes (e.g., Pinot Noir).
The weight or “fullness” of a wine in the mouth, closely correlated with alcohol and sugar levels.
The scents of a wine attributed to the winemaking process, particularly those that develop after bottling.
A Champagne or sparkling wine with little to no discernible sweetness.
Rich or creamy in flavor, often due to oak barrel fermentation.
The distinct attributes of a wine.
The sum of a wine’s flavor, weight, volume, balance, and finesse.
Wine that’s been tainted by a bad cork, often resulting in a musty odor.
A special blend or lot of wine.
Having a clean and slightly brittle feeling in the mouth, generally due to high acidity.
The removal of collected sediment from bottle-fermented sparkling wine by using the pressure of gas in the wine bottle.
The addition of wine (often blended with sugar) to sparkling wine to replace any wine lost after disgorgement; also used to adjust the sweetness of the finished wine.
Having no sweetness remaining after fermentation.
Having aromas or flavors of earth, mineral, or soil.
The process of using yeast to convert grape juice into wine by converting sugars into alcohol.
The lingering flavor a wine leaves in the mouth.
Lacking sufficient acidity or texture.
Having aromas of flowers such as rose, gardenia, or honeysuckle.
Having aromas or flavors of fruit.
Having tart, unripe flavors.
Rich or heavy in the mouth.
Having aromas or flavors of herbs.
Teardrop impressions visible on the inside of a wine glass, indicative of alcohol weightiness.
A wine’s sustained sensory impression; the duration of flavors that linger after swallowing, the longer the better.
Delicate in flavor, aroma, and texture.
A form of secondary fermentation in which hard, malic acid (green apple flavor) ferments into softer, lactic acid (rich, buttery flavor), thereby lessening fruitiness and acidity.
Solid, but not rich in weight and texture.
The traditional method used to make Champagne/sparkling wine in which wine undergoes a secondary fermentation in the bottle.
The smell or aroma of a wine.
Having a toasty, smoky, or vanilla aroma due to oak barrel aging.
Having very low levels of residual sugar.
Wine that’s been exposed to air, which results in a loss of fresh flavors.
The grape sugar remaining in a wine after fermentation.
Having a weighty texture and an abundance of flavor.
Having smooth flavors and texture; well-balanced.
French term for dry, not sweet.
Having a smoky or toasty aroma due to barrel aging.
A trained wine professional who advises upon and/or serves wine in a restaurant.
The sum of a wine’s features (i.e., acidity, alcohol, and tannins), excluding flavor.
Having noticeable residual sugar.
A substance in wine derived from grape skins, seeds, and stems, as well as oak-barrel aging; the principal component of red wine’s structure. They create the drying, astringent sensations that cause the mouth to pucker.
The expression of geography, altitude, soil, and climate in a wine.
Lacking in flavor or having a watery texture.
A wine featuring a single principal grape (e.g., Zinfandel).
Having an aroma or flavor of green vegetables or plants.
The year a particular wine’s grapes were harvested and fermented.
The wine’s appearance and thickness.