Outstanding In Our Field: Biltmore’s Farming Legacy

When it comes to our farm history, Biltmore is truly outstanding in the field. We continue to honor our agricultural legacy today by connecting our present and future initiatives to our historic past.

As part of our farm history, we raise heritage hog breeds that George Vanderbilt favored
One way we continue our farming legacy is by raising some of the same heritage breeds that George Vanderbilt favored like these Berkshire hogs.

When George Vanderbilt began planning his grand estate in Asheville, North Carolina, his vision was twofold. First, he wanted to create a place where he could relax and entertain friends and family. Just as important, however, was his desire to preserve the Blue Ridge Mountain beauty surrounding his him.

In choosing Frederick Law Olmsted, world-renown landscape architect, to design the grounds of Biltmore, Vanderbilt was not only setting the stage for some of the most remarkable gardens in America, he was also availing himself of Olmsted’s years of experience in managing vast tracts of public and private land.

Olmsted’s advice

Archival image of men cutting hay at Biltmore
Archival photograph of our farming history: estate workers harvesting hay at Biltmore

After visiting the property in 1889 with Vanderbilt, Olmsted wrote: “My advice would be to make a small park into which to look from your house; make a small pleasure ground and garden, farm your river bottom chiefly to keep and fatten live stock with view to manure; and make the rest a forest, improving the existing woods and planting the old fields.”

Vanderbilt agreed with Olmsted’s recommendations, including the suggestion that agricultural operations be developed and that Vanderbilt implement Olmsted’s long-term plan for sustainability. From this decision came the nation’s first planned forestry program and the beginning of a family focus on environmental stewardship that continues today with George Vanderbilt’s descendants who still own and manage Biltmore.

Farmer Vanderbilt

An archival photo of our farming history at Biltmore
Archival image of the Historic Horse Barn and Line House Cottages for Biltmore Dairy employees.

Agricultural operations at Biltmore were intended to achieve three goals: supplying dairy products, meat, poultry, fruits and vegetables for use in Biltmore House; providing income through sales of farm products; and serving as a learning laboratory in successful farming for farmers and educators.

Receipts and invoices in the estate’s archives document the construction of farm buildings and cottages, the purchase of animals, supplies and equipment, and the hiring of farm staff beginning as early as September 1889.

Archival photo of estate workers and residents at the Market Gardener's Cottage at Biltmore
Agricultural workers and estate residents at the Market Gardener’s Cottage, photographed in front of an elaborate display of estate-raised produce,

Agricultural programs included beef, pork, and poultry farms, an apiary, vegetable gardens, fruit orchards, hay for livestock, and more. The most successful of these initiatives would be Biltmore Dairy, which eventually became one of the largest operations in the southeast.

Modern forestry

Biltmore Forestry
Our emphasis on managed forestry continues today across the estate.

Today, more than 4,000 acres of the estate are managed under a plan written by a certified consulting forester. We utilize selection harvest in 15-year rotations, allowing a chance for different species to grow and mature.

Instead of focusing on just a profitable bottom line, Biltmore strives to create a true multiuse sustainable forest: one that provides healthy wildlife habitats, beautiful aesthetics, recreation opportunities, and the ability to persist for generations to come.

Today’s agricultural operations

Man standing in front of cattle
Kyle Mayberry, Director of Agriculture, oversees Biltmore’s current farming operations.

Biltmore currently farms approximately 2,500 acres of land. This includes our estate vineyards, cropland for grains and forages, pasturage for cattle, chickens, hogs, sheep, and horses, and greenhouses that supply estate restaurants with fresh produce.

To help preserve one of its most valuable resources—the land—Biltmore seeks to continue the tradition of resource stewardship by following best agricultural practices including rotational grazing of livestock; rotating crops on a four-year cycle to help reduce soil erosion and increase soil fertility; and using goats to control invasive plant species in areas of steep terrain, which allows maintenance crews to take on other projects while reducing some diesel fuel usage in equipment.

Connect past and present farm history in Antler Hill Village

Young girl with chickens at Farmyard in Antler Hill Village
Meet friendly farm animals at the Farmyard in Antler Hill Village

Biltmore continues to honor George Vanderbilt’s legacy of preserving the land and protecting the environment through many ecological, recycling, and alternative energy programs.

In addition, we showcase our agricultural history at Antler Hill Barn located in Antler Hill Village where you can see antique farming equipment, watch craft demonstrations, and visit friendly farm animals at the Farmyard.

Featured image: Archival image of Edith Vanderbilt operating a farm tractor while her daughter Cornelia and others watch.

Every Day is Earth Day at Biltmore

Earth Day is celebrated on April 22, but we treat every day as Earth Day at Biltmore.

Vanderbilt’s vision

When George Vanderbilt began planning his grand estate in Asheville, North Carolina, his vision was twofold.

First, he wanted to create a place where he could relax and entertain friends and family. Just as important, however, was his desire to preserve the surrounding beauty.

West view of Biltmore House from Lagoon
The west side of Biltmore House

Second, he envisioned a self-sustaining estate that would nurture the land and its resources for years to come. From this vision came the nation’s first planned forestry program and the beginning of a family focus on the environment.

We continue to honor Vanderbilt’s vision today by acting as good stewards of our land, forest, and livestock resources. Here are some highlights of the best practices we follow at Biltmore:

Helpful hydroponics

Hydroponic lettuces
Hydroponic lettuce in an estate greenhouse

To honor our legacy of agricultural excellence, the benefits of hydroponics are undeniable.

In addition to higher and more consistent yields, the system is more efficient in protecting plants from pests and uses less water than standard field irrigation. In addition to leafy greens such as lettuce, spinach, mustard, kale, and collards, herbs and edible flowers are grown in the estate’s hydroponic greenhouses.

Grazing, grass, and goats

Goat for Earth Day at Biltmore
One of Biltmore’s friendly goats that enjoys nibbling invasive plants. Credit: The Biltmore Company

Land is one of Biltmore’s most valuable resources, and to help preserve it more sustainably, larger pastures for livestock are divided into smaller paddocks with animals rotated through them every few days.

This practice of rotational grazing allows plants more time to regrow and replenish their root systems, increasing the quality and quantity of on-site foraging, reducing the need for labor-intensive harvesting, and increasing soil health for better agricultural outcomes.

In addition to rotational grazing, we are expanding the number of goats on the estate and putting them to work eating invasive plant species such as autumn olive and porcelain berry.

Goats are especially useful in keeping steep slopes trimmed and tidy, allowing maintenance crews to take on other projects and reducing some diesel fuel usage in equipment.

Protecting our pollinators

Monarch butterfly for Earth Day at Biltmore
Monarch butterflies are welcome guests at Biltmore

Continuing George Vanderbilt’s legacy of environmental stewardship, Biltmore has embarked on an effort to support the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) by planting native milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) to provide vital habitat for this threatened species.

Milkweed is the only plant on which monarchs lay their eggs—and it is the only plant that their young caterpillars eat before transforming into beautiful orange and black butterflies.

In becoming a certified monarch waystation, our hope is that as the monarchs’ path of migration takes them through Asheville and the mountains of Western North Carolina on their way to Mexico, we can encourage growth in their waning populations.

Welcoming wildflowers

Wildflowers for Earth Day at Biltmore
Wildflowers are planted to promote beauty and sustainability

By planting pollinator-friendly wildflowers, Biltmore is playing our part in preventing the widespread demise of these important species—including hummingbirds, bees, moths, and more—that is currently happening worldwide.

We cultivate more than 30 varieties of wildflowers across 2.5 acres in order to attract and support these small but vital native animals. This program encourages a more diverse, and thus resilient, ecosystem both on the estate and in the surrounding region.

Corporate Social Responsibility Team

Bluebird on its house at Biltmore
A bluebird sits atop its house in the fields around the estate

In addition to these best practices, Biltmore encourages employees to become members of the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Team that focuses on reducing, reusing, and recycling for the estate.

Other CSR projects include working with monarch butterflies, cleaning and monitoring bluebird houses around the property, and a variety of other small-scale efforts that make a big difference in our community.

Sustainable practices at Biltmore

Solar panels at Biltmore
A section of the 9-acre solar field at Biltmore

Along with the initiatives noted above, Biltmore has implemented a 9-acre, 1.7-megawatt solar system with 7,000 solar panels to offset some of our energy usage, and we promote sustainability in our winemaking practices, as well.

Cork recycling barrel at Biltmore
A wine cork recycling barrel at Biltmore

To learn more about how we make every day like Earth Day at Biltmore, visit the Environmental Stewardship section of our website.